參考資料:


AJAX Introduction


 

What is AJAX?

AJAX = Asynchronous JavaScript and XML.

AJAX is a technique for creating fast and dynamic web pages.

AJAX allows web pages to be updated asynchronously by exchanging small amounts of data with the server behind the scenes. This means that it is possible to update parts of a web page, without reloading the whole page.

Classic web pages, (which do not use AJAX) must reload the entire page if the content should change.

Examples of applications using AJAX: Google Maps, Gmail, Youtube, and Facebook tabs.


 

How AJAX Works

AJAX

 


AJAX is Based on Internet Standards

AJAX is based on internet standards, and uses a combination of:

  • XMLHttpRequest object (to exchange data asynchronously with a server)
  • JavaScript/DOM (to display/interact with the information)
  • CSS (to style the data)
  • XML (often used as the format for transferring data)

 

AJAX - AJAX and PHP


 

<html>
<head>
<script>
function showHint(str) {
    if (str.length == 0) { 
        document.getElementById("txtHint").innerHTML = "";
        return;
    } else {
        var xmlhttp = new XMLHttpRequest();
        xmlhttp.onreadystatechange = function() {
            if (xmlhttp.readyState == 4 && xmlhttp.status == 200) {
                document.getElementById("txtHint").innerHTML = xmlhttp.responseText;
            }
        }
        xmlhttp.open("GET", "gethint.php?q=" + str, true);
        xmlhttp.send();
    }
}
</script>
</head>
<body>

<p><b>Start typing a name in the input field below:</b></p>
<form> 
First name: <input type="text" onkeyup="showHint(this.value)">
</form>
<p>Suggestions: <span id="txtHint"></span></p>
</body>
</html>


 

<?php
// Array with names
$a[] = "Anna";
$a[] = "Brittany";
$a[] = "Cinderella";
$a[] = "Diana";
$a[] = "Eva";
$a[] = "Fiona";
$a[] = "Gunda";
$a[] = "Hege";
$a[] = "Inga";
$a[] = "Johanna";
$a[] = "Kitty";
$a[] = "Linda";
$a[] = "Nina";
$a[] = "Ophelia";
$a[] = "Petunia";
$a[] = "Amanda";
$a[] = "Raquel";
$a[] = "Cindy";
$a[] = "Doris";
$a[] = "Eve";
$a[] = "Evita";
$a[] = "Sunniva";
$a[] = "Tove";
$a[] = "Unni";
$a[] = "Violet";
$a[] = "Liza";
$a[] = "Elizabeth";
$a[] = "Ellen";
$a[] = "Wenche";
$a[] = "Vicky";

// get the q parameter from URL
$q = $_REQUEST["q"];

$hint = "";

// lookup all hints from array if $q is different from "" 
if ($q !== "") {
    $q = strtolower($q);
    $len=strlen($q);
    foreach($a as $name) {
        if (stristr($q, substr($name, 0, $len))) {
            if ($hint === "") {
                $hint = $name;
            } else {
                $hint .= ", $name";
            }
        }
    }
}

// Output "no suggestion" if no hint was found or output correct values 
echo $hint === "" ? "no suggestion" : $hint;
?>


 

PHP - AJAX and MySQL


 

<html>
<head>
<script>
function showUser(str) {
    if (str == "") {
        document.getElementById("txtHint").innerHTML = "";
        return;
    } else { 
        if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {
            // code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari
            xmlhttp = new XMLHttpRequest();
        } else {
            // code for IE6, IE5
            xmlhttp = new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
        }
        xmlhttp.onreadystatechange = function() {
            if (xmlhttp.readyState == 4 && xmlhttp.status == 200) {
                document.getElementById("txtHint").innerHTML = xmlhttp.responseText;
            }
        }
        xmlhttp.open("GET","getuser.php?q="+str,true);
        xmlhttp.send();
    }
}
</script>
</head>
<body>

<form>
<select name="users" onchange="showUser(this.value)">
  <option value="">Select a person:</option>
  <option value="1">Peter Griffin</option>
  <option value="2">Lois Griffin</option>
  <option value="3">Joseph Swanson</option>
  <option value="4">Glenn Quagmire</option>
  </select>
</form>
<br>
<div id="txtHint"><b>Person info will be listed here...</b></div>

</body>
</html>


 

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<style>
table {
    width: 100%;
    border-collapse: collapse;
}

table, td, th {
    border: 1px solid black;
    padding: 5px;
}

th {text-align: left;}
</style>
</head>
<body>

<?php
$q = intval($_GET['q']);

$con = mysqli_connect('localhost','peter','abc123','my_db');
if (!$con) {
    die('Could not connect: ' . mysqli_error($con));
}

mysqli_select_db($con,"ajax_demo");
$sql="SELECT * FROM user WHERE id = '".$q."'";
$result = mysqli_query($con,$sql);

echo "<table>
<tr>
<th>Firstname</th>
<th>Lastname</th>
<th>Age</th>
<th>Hometown</th>
<th>Job</th>
</tr>";
while($row = mysqli_fetch_array($result)) {
    echo "<tr>";
    echo "<td>" . $row['FirstName'] . "</td>";
    echo "<td>" . $row['LastName'] . "</td>";
    echo "<td>" . $row['Age'] . "</td>";
    echo "<td>" . $row['Hometown'] . "</td>";
    echo "<td>" . $row['Job'] . "</td>";
    echo "</tr>";
}
echo "</table>";
mysqli_close($con);
?>
</body>
</html>


 

PHP Example - AJAX and XML


 

<html>
<head>
<script>
function showCD(str) {
  if (str=="") {
    document.getElementById("txtHint").innerHTML="";
    return;
  } 
  if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {
    // code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari
    xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest();
  } else {  // code for IE6, IE5
    xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
  }
  xmlhttp.onreadystatechange=function() {
    if (xmlhttp.readyState==4 && xmlhttp.status==200) {
      document.getElementById("txtHint").innerHTML=xmlhttp.responseText;
    }
  }
  xmlhttp.open("GET","getcd.php?q="+str,true);
  xmlhttp.send();
}
</script>
</head>
<body>

<form>
Select a CD:
<select name="cds" onchange="showCD(this.value)">
<option value="">Select a CD:</option>
<option value="Bob Dylan">Bob Dylan</option>
<option value="Bonnie Tyler">Bonnie Tyler</option>
<option value="Dolly Parton">Dolly Parton</option>
</select>
</form>
<div id="txtHint"><b>CD info will be listed here...</b></div>

</body>
</html>


 

<?php
$q=$_GET["q"];

$xmlDoc = new DOMDocument();
$xmlDoc->load("cd_catalog.xml");

$x=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('ARTIST');

for ($i=0; $i<=$x->length-1; $i++) {
  //Process only element nodes
  if ($x->item($i)->nodeType==1) {
    if ($x->item($i)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue == $q) {
      $y=($x->item($i)->parentNode);
    }
  }
}

$cd=($y->childNodes);

for ($i=0;$i<$cd->length;$i++) { 
  //Process only element nodes
  if ($cd->item($i)->nodeType==1) {
    echo("<b>" . $cd->item($i)->nodeName . ":</b> ");
    echo($cd->item($i)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue);
    echo("<br>");
  }
}
?>


 

PHP Exampel - AJAX Live Search


 

<html>
<head>
<script>
function showResult(str) {
  if (str.length==0) { 
    document.getElementById("livesearch").innerHTML="";
    document.getElementById("livesearch").style.border="0px";
    return;
  }
  if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {
    // code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari
    xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest();
  } else {  // code for IE6, IE5
    xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
  }
  xmlhttp.onreadystatechange=function() {
    if (xmlhttp.readyState==4 && xmlhttp.status==200) {
      document.getElementById("livesearch").innerHTML=xmlhttp.responseText;
      document.getElementById("livesearch").style.border="1px solid #A5ACB2";
    }
  }
  xmlhttp.open("GET","livesearch.php?q="+str,true);
  xmlhttp.send();
}
</script>
</head>
<body>

<form>
<input type="text" size="30" onkeyup="showResult(this.value)">
<div id="livesearch"></div>
</form>

</body>
</html>


 

<?php
$xmlDoc=new DOMDocument();
$xmlDoc->load("links.xml");

$x=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('link');

//get the q parameter from URL
$q=$_GET["q"];

//lookup all links from the xml file if length of q>0
if (strlen($q)>0) {
  $hint="";
  for($i=0; $i<($x->length); $i++) {
    $y=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('title');
    $z=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('url');
    if ($y->item(0)->nodeType==1) {
      //find a link matching the search text
      if (stristr($y->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue,$q)) {
        if ($hint=="") {
          $hint="<a href='" . 
          $z->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . 
          "' target='_blank'>" . 
          $y->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . "</a>";
        } else {
          $hint=$hint . "<br /><a href='" . 
          $z->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . 
          "' target='_blank'>" . 
          $y->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue . "</a>";
        }
      }
    }
  }
}

// Set output to "no suggestion" if no hint was found
// or to the correct values
if ($hint=="") {
  $response="no suggestion";
} else {
  $response=$hint;
}

//output the response
echo $response;
?>


 

PHP Example - AJAX RSS Reader


 

<html>
<head>
<script>
function showRSS(str) {
  if (str.length==0) { 
    document.getElementById("rssOutput").innerHTML="";
    return;
  }
  if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {
    // code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari
    xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest();
  } else {  // code for IE6, IE5
    xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
  }
  xmlhttp.onreadystatechange=function() {
    if (xmlhttp.readyState==4 && xmlhttp.status==200) {
      document.getElementById("rssOutput").innerHTML=xmlhttp.responseText;
    }
  }
  xmlhttp.open("GET","getrss.php?q="+str,true);
  xmlhttp.send();
}
</script>
</head>
<body>

<form>
<select onchange="showRSS(this.value)">
<option value="">Select an RSS-feed:</option>
<option value="Google">Google News</option>
<option value="NBC">NBC News</option>
</select>
</form>
<br>
<div id="rssOutput">RSS-feed will be listed here...</div>
</body>
</html>


 

<?php
//get the q parameter from URL
$q=$_GET["q"];

//find out which feed was selected
if($q=="Google") {
  $xml=("http://news.google.com/news?ned=us&topic=h&output=rss");
} elseif($q=="NBC") {
  $xml=("http://rss.msnbc.msn.com/id/3032091/device/rss/rss.xml");
}

$xmlDoc = new DOMDocument();
$xmlDoc->load($xml);

//get elements from "<channel>"
$channel=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('channel')->item(0);
$channel_title = $channel->getElementsByTagName('title')
->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue;
$channel_link = $channel->getElementsByTagName('link')
->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue;
$channel_desc = $channel->getElementsByTagName('description')
->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue;

//output elements from "<channel>"
echo("<p><a href='" . $channel_link
  . "'>" . $channel_title . "</a>");
echo("<br>");
echo($channel_desc . "</p>");

//get and output "<item>" elements
$x=$xmlDoc->getElementsByTagName('item');
for ($i=0; $i<=2; $i++) {
  $item_title=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('title')
  ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue;
  $item_link=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('link')
  ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue;
  $item_desc=$x->item($i)->getElementsByTagName('description')
  ->item(0)->childNodes->item(0)->nodeValue;
  echo ("<p><a href='" . $item_link
  . "'>" . $item_title . "</a>");
  echo ("<br>");
  echo ($item_desc . "</p>");
}
?>

PHP Example - AJAX Poll


 

<html>
<head>
<script>
function getVote(int) {
  if (window.XMLHttpRequest) {
    // code for IE7+, Firefox, Chrome, Opera, Safari
    xmlhttp=new XMLHttpRequest();
  } else {  // code for IE6, IE5
    xmlhttp=new ActiveXObject("Microsoft.XMLHTTP");
  }
  xmlhttp.onreadystatechange=function() {
    if (xmlhttp.readyState==4 && xmlhttp.status==200) {
      document.getElementById("poll").innerHTML=xmlhttp.responseText;
    }
  }
  xmlhttp.open("GET","poll_vote.php?vote="+int,true);
  xmlhttp.send();
}
</script>
</head>
<body>

<div id="poll">
<h3>Do you like PHP and AJAX so far?</h3>
<form>
Yes:
<input type="radio" name="vote" value="0" onclick="getVote(this.value)">
<br>No:
<input type="radio" name="vote" value="1" onclick="getVote(this.value)">
</form>
</div>

</body>
</html>


 

 

<?php
$vote = $_REQUEST['vote'];

//get content of textfile
$filename = "poll_result.txt";
$content = file($filename);

//put content in array
$array = explode("||", $content[0]);
$yes = $array[0];
$no = $array[1];

if ($vote == 0) {
  $yes = $yes + 1;
}
if ($vote == 1) {
  $no = $no + 1;
}

//insert votes to txt file
$insertvote = $yes."||".$no;
$fp = fopen($filename,"w");
fputs($fp,$insertvote);
fclose($fp);
?>

<h2>Result:</h2>
<table>
<tr>
<td>Yes:</td>
<td>
<img src="/joomla/poll.gif"
width='<?php echo(100*round($yes/($no+$yes),2)); ?>'
height='20'>
<?php echo(100*round($yes/($no+$yes),2)); ?>%
</td>
</tr>
<tr>
<td>No:</td>
<td>
<img src="/joomla/poll.gif"
width='<?php echo(100*round($no/($no+$yes),2)); ?>'
height='20'>
<?php echo(100*round($no/($no+$yes),2)); ?>%
</td>
</tr>
</table>